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浅析防卫过当
作者:乔铁军 文章来源:本站原创 点击数: 更新时间:2008-5-24

浅析防卫过当
作者:北安市人民法院 乔铁军

摘  要

防卫过当是指防卫行为明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的应当负刑事责任,但防卫过当是一种轻微的犯罪行为,它符合犯罪构成的一般原理,即犯罪构成的几个要件主体、客体、主观方面和客观方面,防卫过当的主体是具有刑事责任能力的单个公民,客体是不法侵害人的人身权利,即不法侵害人依法受刑法保护的生命劝和健康权,主观方面是防卫人对过当结果持放任疏忽大意过于自信的态度,客观方面是防卫行为明显超过了制止不法侵害行为所必须的限度,并且造成了重大损害。《刑法》第20条没有对“明显超过必要限度”作出界定,造成在法学界对如何界定防卫过当提出了许多观点,随着社会的进步,法学界又对防卫过当与正当防卫的关系提出了新的观点,最后关于防卫过当的刑事责任,防卫过当构成犯罪,应当承担刑事责任,但应减轻或者免除处罚,这也是鼓励公民,勇于同不法侵害者作斗争,对维护社会秩序具有积极的作用。
     关键词:防卫过当  正当防卫  防卫行为  刑法

 

                        
Abstract

Defends has considered refers to the defense behavior obviously to surpass the essential limit to create the significant harm to have to take the legal responsibility, but defends has considered one kind of slight criminality, it conforms to the crime constitution general principle, namely the crime constitution several important documents main body, the object, the subjective aspect and the objective aspect, have defended when the main body is the single citizen which has the legal responsibility ability, the object illegally violates human's personal rights, namely illegally violates the human to receive the criminal law protection the life to urge legally with the healthy power, the subjective aspect is defends the human to when the result holds the laissez faire careless too self-confident manner, The objective aspect was defends the behavior obviously to surpass stopped the illegal violation behavior to have the limit, and has created the significant harm. "Criminal law" 20th obviously has not  surpassed essential limit "to" to make the limits, how creates to limits in the legal science has defended when proposed many viewpoints, along with society's progress, the legal science to have defended when proposed with the justifiable defense relations the new viewpoint, finally about has defended works as the legal responsibility, defends has worked as the constitution crime, must undertake the legal responsibility, but should reduce or avoid the punishment, this also encourages the citizen, dares to wage the struggle with the illegal violation, to maintains the social order to have the positive function.

Key  word: Defends has worked as  Justifiable defense  Defense behavior  Criminal law

 

  一、防卫过当的概念

    所谓防卫过当是指防卫行为明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的应当负刑事责任的犯罪行为[1]。防卫过当的概念不是独立被提出来的,而是随着正当防卫的历史发展而提出来的。早在20世纪初,刑事社会学派取代了刑事古典学派,在刑法理论上占据了统治地位,从理性的角度对人们行使防卫权的范围、条件、合理限度等进行规定。在这种情况下就提出了防卫过当的概念及制定出对其应减轻或免除处罚的规定,从而走上了有限防卫的轨道。
    我国刑法第20条第2款规定:“正当防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害的,应当负刑事责任,但是应当减轻或免除处罚,”此规定与1979年的旧刑法相比对公民实施防卫行为加以了扩张,在鼓励公民更好的利用防卫权,保护合法权益,维护社会秩序方面,有其积极的意义。

    二、 防卫过当的含义及其本质

    (一)防卫过当的含义

    根据我国《刑法》规定,防卫过当是指防卫明显超过必要限度造成重大损害应当负刑事责任的行为。其含义为

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